Bulb types: incandescent and energy saving
Note: Energy saving bulbs are available in the standard cap sizes to fit most light fittings (BC/B22, SBC/B15, ES/E27, SES/E14 and in GLS, candle and stick shapes) but the overall dimensions can differ slightly due to the width and height of the tubes.

BC/B22 GLS – bayonet cap general light service
BC/B22 GB – bayonet cap golf ball
BC/B22 – bayonet cap candle
SBC/B15 G – small bayonet cap golf ball
SBC/B15 CNDL – small bayonet cap candle
ES/E27 GLS – Edison screw general light service
ES/E27 GB Edison screw golf ball
ES/E27 CNDL Edison screw candle
SES/E14 GB small Edison screw golf ball
SES/E14 CNDL small Edison screw candle
SES/CNDL small Edison screw energy saving halogen cap candle

Fitting energy saving bulbs into your existing fitting will give you a more energy efficient fitting.

Bulb types: 12v halogen
MR16 12 volt – Dichroic reflector (heat backwards) Aluminium reflector (heat forwards). Available in 20, 35, 50w Beam angles 10o-60o
G4 – Available in 10w, 20w, 35w, 50w
GU10 – Aluminium reflector (light & heat forward) GZ10 – Dichroic reflector (light forward, heat back) Available 35-50W Beam angles 25o-38
G9 – Available as 25, 40, 60, 75w
Linear halogen:
78mm – 60, 100w
118mm – 150, 200, 300w
NOTE: always observe the maximum wattage rating on the fitting.

Bulb types: low energy fluorescent
Compact fluorescent: Available with built-in ballast with ES or BC fitment for replacement of GLS bulbs.
Ideal for lights that will be left on for long periods. i.e. outside, hall or porch lights. 2D:
GR8 = 2pin = 16w
GR10q = 4 pin = 28, 38w
Requires special fittings with built in ballasts.
Fixed wattage cannot be changed.

PL lamps
G24d-1, G24d-2, G24d-3 (d = duo = 2 pin)
G24q-1, G24q-2 (q = quarto = 4 pin)
Available 10-26w
Requires special fittings with built in ballasts.
Fixed wattage cannot be changed.

Dual Mount
Products shown with this symbol can be adapted and the chain removed, so the Pendant can be fitted directly to the ceiling. Full instructions are included with each product.
We recommend that conversion is carried out by a qualified electrician upon installation.

Lightbulb types
Energy Saving Options
There are an increasing numbers of alternative ‘energy saving’ lamps available. Depending on the type of lamp, the energy saving potential and type of light emitted is different – this guide provides a summary of some popular types.
Dedicated Low Energy
Some fittings are only suitable for dedicated low energy lamps. The fittings themselves contain control gear which is designed to operate ‘pin based’ fluorescent lamps. These lamps have unique lampholder types which are only suitable for the type of lamp detailed in the specification. They come in several different shapes dependant on the lamp holder. They consume around 20% of the energy used by a conventional incandescent (GLS) lamp and have a life of between 10 & 25 times longer (dependant on specific lamps).

Retro Fit Low Energy (Self ballasted lamps) 
This type of lamp is available to suit many of the common lampholder types (BC, ES, SES, GU10) and is suitable for use in many of the fittings. It is a fluorescent lamp, similar in operation and energy saving to the dedicated low energy lamps but with the control gear housed within the lamp itself. This allows them to be fitted in fittings designed for use with conventional GLS lamps. They are available in a variety of shapes and sizes of varying wattages. A guide for comparable wattages can be found below.

Wattage Comparison
Incandescent Lamp
25 Watt
40 Watt
60 Watt
75 Watt
100 Watt
150 Watt
Retro Fit Lamp (Self Ballasted)
5-7 Watt
8-10 Watt
11-14 Watt
15-17 Watt
18-22 Watt
23-27 Watt

The type of light will vary dependant on the ‘colour temperature’ of the lamp – a lamp marked 827 (for 2700k) will produce a warm light, similar in appearance to a conventional GLS whilst an 835 (3500k) will produce a colder light which may be more suitable for some contemporary fittings.
Lamps with a colour temperature above 5000k are referred to as ‘daylight’ and give excellent colour rendering suitable for task lighting.

NOTE: This type of lamp is not suitable for use on products which have touch dimmers or which are intended to be dimmed.

Low Voltage Products

Electronic Transformers
A dimmer switch suitable for trailing edge (also described as phase lagging) is most likely to be compatible. This information is included in instructions for the appropriate products.
Toroidal Transformers
A dimmer switch suitable for inductive loads must be selected.
Dimmer Switches
A dimmer switch is a third party accessory and compatibility with our products is not guaranteed.
These notes are for guidance only. For further advice, please contact a qualified electrician or the manufacturer of the dimmer switch you intend to use.
DO NOT USE dimmer switches on products which contain fluorescent lamps (including fluorescent ‘energy saving’ lamps).

Please note that buzzing from the transformer is frequently caused by the dimmer switch – this may be because the wrong type of dimmer switch has been selected but it is quite normal for there to be some buzzing from either the dimmer switch of the transformer of any item being dimmed. A slight buzz is not indicative of a problem with the fitting or dimmer; it is a normal by-product of dimming the item. A more serious buzzing is almost always a result of using an incompatible/incorrect dimmer.

Mains Voltage Halogen (GU10, G9 and R7Ss)
Many dimmer manufacturers recommend that the rating of the dimmer switch is reduced when these lamp types are dimmed. The following is a guide to the revised loads recommended:

Maximum Load on Dimmer Switch Rating Label
Maximum Load to be applied when using Main Voltage Halogen

Energy Efficiency
Lamp Phase Out Regulations
There has recently been a new directive from the EU which will result in the gradual phase out of some lamp types. Primarily the Directive affects ‘traditional’ GLS/Candle & Golfball type lamps but there are other lamp types affected.
There are some new types of lamps available as replacements for some of these lamps affected.
The proposed phase out is expected broadly to affect the following: Since September 2009 – All ‘non-clear’ (this means frosted, pearl etc.) lamps have to have an energy efficiency rating of ‘A’. This means that the only non-clear lamps available are fluorescent types. Lamps affected include mains voltage GLS, Golfball, Candle, G9 and Low voltage GY6.35 & G4 in all wattages.

Also since September 2009, clear lamps over 80w have to have an energy efficiency rating of at least ‘C’. This effectively bans all existing GLS lamps of more than 80w and requires the use of ‘new technology’ lamps for R7s linear halogens (which have a ‘C’ rating). September 2010 – clear lamps over 65w will need to have an energy efficiency rating of at least ‘C’. This effectively bans all existing GLS lamps of more than 65w. This will also affect 60w G9 lamps (as their actual light output is more than a 65w GLS) which will also need to be ‘C’ rated (there are some new G9 lamps now available which meet this requirement).
September 2011 – clear lamps over 45w will need to have an energy efficiency rating of at least ‘C’. This effectively bans all existing GLS, Candle or golfball lamps of more than 45w.
September 2012 – clear lamps over 7w will need to have an energy efficiency rating of at least ‘C’. This effectively bans all existing GLS, Candle or golfball lamps of over 7w – it also means all ratings of G9 must be at least ‘C’ rated (already available).
September 2013 – A number of performance improvements for various lamp types will be introduced, then in September 2014 The Commission will review the requirements of the regulations and make any additional recommendations.

New Technologies
Due to phase out proposals, a number of new lamps have become (and will continue to become) available. These fall broadly into two categories:

1. Compact Fluorescent (CFL)
These lamps are the most energy efficient option, typically emitting 4 times the amount of light of a traditional GLS lamp (therefore only consuming a ¼ of the power for the same amount of light).
These lamps are a good choice for table lamps and ceiling pendants with soft shades where the lamp is not directly visible. They are not suited to more open fixtures, particularly those with crystal as the frosted nature of the lamp envelope does not provide the necessary ’sparkle’ to crystal.
The modern CFL has few of the drawbacks of its predecessors – the light quickly gets to its maximum output (usually within a few seconds) and many are designed to closely approximate the size and shape of the GLS lamps they replace. Typically a lamp with a colour temperature of 2700k (may appear as 827 on the packaging) will be very similar in appearance to a traditional GLS.

Much of the information you may have read in the media is based on ‘older’ technologies and does not accurately reflect current technologies. In fact, in April of 2008 the Energy Saving Trust conducted a ‘light bulb challenge’ at Bluewater shopping centre in Kent.
Each shopper was shown into two identical booths – one lit with an energy saving light bulb, the other lit with a traditional one. Before they took the challenge they were asked whether they thought they could tell the difference between energy saving and traditional light bulbs.
Confidently, nearly 7 out of 10 (68%) believed they could. 761 then agreed to be put to the test. Slightly less than half (47%) got it right and 53% either got it wrong or couldn’t spot a difference. With no real statistical difference showing, this means the energy saving lighting looks just like traditional lighting. Perhaps more surprising, when asked which lighting they preferred, the majority – 2 in 3 (64%) preferred the energy saving lighting, or didn’t have a preference. Only 36% preferred the lighting of the traditional bulb.
When using compact fluorescent lamps in place of conventional GLS the following table provides a guide to the equivalent wattages:

Ordinary Bulbs
Energy Saving Equivalent

Some manufacturers now label their CFLs with a 3 digit code to specify the colour rendering index (CRI) and colour temperature of the lamp. The first digit represents the CRI measured in tens of percent, while the second two digits represent the colour temperature measured in hundreds of kelvins. For example, a CFL with a CRI of 83% and a colour temperature of 2700k would be given a code of 827.

2. Energy Savers
These lamps are improved, halogen versions of popular lamps affected by the phase out – primarily GLS and Candle. These lamps are clear (as frosted lamps were banned in the first phase in September 2009) and typically contain a small halogen capsule inside a traditional ‘envelope’ (the glass bowl).

They give the same light output as the lamps they are designed to replace but consume less power (watts). So, for example, a lamp designed to replace a 40w candle lamp will typically consume 28w, a 60w GLS replacement would consume around 42w.

This represents an energy saving of around 30% - whilst not as efficient as the 80% saving offered by CFLs, it is still a substantial energy saving and offers other advantages. The clear lamp envelope means that these lamps are well suited to traditional chandelier type fittings with crystal decoration as the halogen light source will cause the crystal to sparkle.
There are already versions of these lamps available as replacements for GLS, Candle, G9, and R7s (linear halogens) and they improve the energy efficiency rating sufficiently to survive the phase out until at least 2012 and in some cases 2016 (the R7s and G9 versions of these lamps will survive past 2016 as they are the most efficient versions that current technology will allow).

Please note – throughout the catalogue you will find that many fittings are still shown as 100w. This is a maximum rating (meaning lower wattages are fine). We have continued to use this rating despite the fact that GLS will no longer be available in this wattage as it makes it easier to select an appropriate energy saving equivalent. Your retailer can advise you on the selection of appropriate lamps for use with all of the fittings contained within the catalogue.

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. We will be happy to help with all queries.
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